# Rabi Award

The Rabi Award is to recognize outstanding contributions related to the fields of atomic and molecular frequency standards, and time transfer and dissemination.

###### Rabi Award Winners

**2013 - Judah Levine**

"For outstanding contributions to the field of precise time keeping and time transfer, including pioneering research and development of GNSS time transfer, network time services, and the design of better time scales."

**2012 - James Camparo**

"For outstanding experimental and theoretical contributions to the understanding of optical pumping using spectral lamps and
lasers for improvement in Rubidium frequency standards used in terrestrial and space-based navigation and timekeeping systems."

**2011 - Fritz Riehle**

"For outstanding contributions to the field of atomic frequency standards, including pioneering research and development of optical frequency standards and their measurement."

**2010 - Long Sheng Ma**

"For decisive contributions to the development of optical clocks, of fs-laser spectroscopy, and to the refinement of frequency measurement into the 19th digit of precision."

**2009 - John D. Prestage**

"For seminal work on the time variation of fundamental constants and outstanding contributions to trapped ion clocks"

**2008 - Hidetoshi Katori**

"For outstanding contributions to the invention and development of an optical lattice clock"

**2007 - Patrick Gill and Leo Hollberg**

Patrick Gill: "For profound and continuing contributions to time and frequency metrology and the outstanding realization of single ion optical frequency standards"

Leo Hollberg: "For seminal contribution to optical frequency metrology with the development of ultra stable optical frequency standards and related femtosecond clockwork"

**2006 - James C. Bergquist**

"For seminal contributions to laser spectroscopy and the realization of accurate optical frequency standards"

**2005 - Theodor W. Hänsch, Nobel Prize in 2005**

"For outstanding contributions to experimental quantum optics, precision spectroscopy, and optical frequency combs"

**2004 - John L. Hall, Nobel Prize in 2005**

"For fundamental contributions to the development of ultra-high performance optical frequency standards, and for pioneering novel techniques and methods that enable the realization of optical standards and their applications in metrology"

**2003 - Andreas Bauch**

"For outstanding contributions to the development, evaluation, and operation of primary frequency standards"

**2002 - Jon H. Shirley**

"For profound and continuing contributions to the understanding and advancement of the science of accuracy evaluation in primary frequency standards."

**2001 - Lute Maleki**

"For outstanding contributions and scientific leadership in the development of a wide range of atomic clocks and oscillators supporting the U.S. space program."

**2000 - William J. Riley Jr.**

"For outstanding achievement in the development of high performance gas cell rubidium frequency standards and for contributions to the understanding of frequency stability analysis".

**1999 - Bernard Guinot**

"For outstanding contributions to the definition and the implementation of the concepts on which international time-keeping is based."

**1998 - David J. Wineland, Nobel Prize in 2012**

"For the first laser cooling of any atomic species and the demonstration of innovative methods for laser cooling of trapped ions, providing the foundation for the next generation of atomic frequency standards"

**1997 - Harry E. Peters and Nikolai A. Demidov**

"For the development and manufacture of the hydrogen maser for precision timekeeping applications."

**1996 - Andre Clairon and Robert E. Drullinger**

"For significant contributions to the improvement of the SI second through the realization of superior accuracy primary standards."

**1995 - Fred L. Walls**

"For major contributions to the characterization of noise and other instabilities of local oscillators and their effects on atomic frequency standards."

**1994 - Jacques Vanier**

"For his contributions to the application of quantum theory to the development of atomic frequency standards, and for this leadership in promoting the whole field and making it widely accessible to students and junior colleagues."

**1993 - Robert F. C. Vessot**

"For contributions to hydrogen maser technology and applications."

**1992 - James A. Barnes**

"For contributions and leadership in the development of the statistical theory, simulation and practical understanding of clock noise and the application of this understanding to the characterization of precision oscillators and atomic clocks."

**1991 - Andrea DeMarchi**

"For contributions to significant improvements in the accuracy and stability of cesium beam frequency standards."

**1990 - Claude Audoin**

"For original contributions to the theoretical experimental foundations of microwave frequency standards and their metrology."

**1989 - Leonard S. Cutler**

"For consistent technical and managerial contributions to the development of atomic cesium, rubidium and mercury ion frequency standards."

**1988 - Gernot M.R. Winkler**

"For early development of worldwide clock synchronization through use of portable clocks; encouragement and support for the development of atomic frequency standards from their earliest days; and international leadership in the time and frequency community."

**1987 - Louis Essen**

"For contributions to cesium atomic beam and quartz frequency standards."

**1986 - Jerrold R. Zacharias**

"For his contributions to the development of atomic frequency standards, especially his scientific leadership, pioneering demonstration of the technology, and entrepreneurial initiative which led to the commercialization of atomic standards."

**1985 - Norman Ramsey, Nobel Prize in 1989**

"For his contributions to the development of atomic frequency standards."

**1984 - David W. Allan**

"For his contributions to the statistics of atomic clocks, measurement techniques, time scale and time coordination and distribution."

**1983 - I. I. Rabi, Nobel Prize in 1944**

"For theoretical and experimental contributions to atomic beam resonance spectroscopy leading to the development of practical atomic frequency standards."